11.Which of the following， if true， is the most logical completion of the argument below？
The tax system of the Republic of Grootland encourages borrowing by granting its taxpayers tax relief for interest paid on loans. The system also discourages saving by taxing any interest earned on savings. Nevertheless， it is clear that Grootland‘s tax system does not consistently favor borrowing over saving， for if it did， there would be no——。
（A） tax relief in Grootland for those portions of a taxpayer‘s income， if any， hat are set aside to increase that taxpayer‘s total savings
（B） tax relief in Grootland for the processing fees that taxpayers pay to ending institutions when obtaining certain kinds of loans
（C） tax relief in Grootland for interest that taxpayers are charged on the unpaid balance in credit card accounts
（D） taxes due in Grootland on the cash value of gifts received by taxpayers from banks trying to encourage people to open saving accounts
（E） taxes due in Grootland on the amount that a taxpayer has invested in interest-bearing savings accounts
12.The amount of time it takes for most of a worker‘s occupational knowledge and skills to become obsolete has been declining because of the introduction of advanced manufacturing technology （AMT）。 Given the rate at which AMT is currently being introduced in manufacturing， the average worker‘s old skills become obsolete and new skills are required within as little as five years.
Which of the following plans， if feasible， would allow a company to prepare most effectively for the rapid obsolescence of skills described above？
（A） The company will develop a program to offer selected employees the opportunity to receive training six years after they were originally hired.
（B） The company will increase its investment in AMT every year for a period of at least five years.
（C） The company will periodically survey its employees to determine how the introduction of AMT has affected them.
（D） Before the introduction of AMT， the company will institute an educational program to inform its employees of the probable consequences of the introduction of AMT.
（E） The company will ensure that it can offer its employees any training necessary for meeting their job requirements.
13. F： We ought not to test the safety of new drugs on sentient animals， such as dogs and rabbits. Our benefit means their pain， and they are equal to us in the capacity to feel pain.
G： We must carry out such tests； otherwise， we would irresponsibly sacrifice the human lives that could have been saved by the drugs.Which of the following， if true， is the best objection that could be made from F‘s point of view to counter G‘s point？
（A） Even though it is not necessary for people to use cosmetics， cosmetics are also being tested on sentient animals.
（B） Medical science already has at its disposal a great number of drugs and other treatments for serious illnesses.
（C） It is not possible to obtain scientifically adequate results by testing drugs in the test tube，without making tests on living tissue.
（D） Some of the drugs to be tested would save human beings from great pain
（E） Many tests now performed on sentient animals can be performed equally well on fertilized chicken eggs that are at avery early stage of development.
14.Roland： The alarming fact is that 90 percent of the people in this country now report that they know someone who is unemployed.
Sharon： But a normal， moderate level of unemployment is 5 percent， with 1 out of 20 workers unemployed. So at any given time if a person knows approximat-ely 50 workers， 1 or more will very likely be unemployed.
Sharon‘s argument is structured to lead to which of the following as a conclusion？
（A） The fact that 90% of the people know someone who is unemployed is not an indication that unemployment is abnormally high （B） The current level of unemployment is not moderate.
（C） If at least 5% of workers are unemployed， the result of questioning a representative group of people cannot be the percentage Roland cites
（D） It is unlikely that the people whose statements Roland cites are giving accurate reports.
（E） If an unemployment figure is given as a certain percent， the actual percentage of those without jobs is even higher.
15.Sharon‘s argument relies on the assumption that
（A） normal levels of unemployment are rarely exceeded
（B） unemployment is not normally concentrated in geographically isolated segments of the population
（C） the number of people who each know someone who is unemployed is always higher than 90% of the population
（D） Roland is not consciously distorting the statistics he presents
（E） knowledge that a personal acquaintance is unemployed generates more fear of losing one‘s job than does knowledge of unemployment statistics
16.Working shorter workweeks causes managers to feel less stress than does working longer workweeks. In addition， greater perceived control over one‘s work life reduces stress levels. It can be concluded， therefore， that shorter workweeks cause managers to feel they have more control over their work life.
The argument made above uses which of the following questionable techniques？
（A） Associating two conditions as cause and effect on the basis of their being causally associated with the same phenomenon （B） Taking for granted that two factors that have a certain effect individually produce that effect more strongly when both act together.
（C） Assuming what it sets out to prove
（D） Using an irrelevant point in order to draw a conclusion
（E） Basing a conclusion on preconceived views about the needs of managers
17.Many plant varieties used in industrially developed nations to improve cultivated crops come from lessdeveloped nations. No compensation is paid on the grounds that the plants used are “the common heritage of humanity.” Such reasoning is， however， flawed. After all， no one suggests that coal， oil， and ores should be extracted without payment.
Which of the following best describes an aspect of the method used by the author in the argument above？
（A） The author proceeds from a number of specific observations to a tentative generalization.
（B） The author applies to the case under discussion facts about phenomena assumed to be similar in some relevant respect.
（C） A position is strengthened by showing that the opposite of that position would have logically absurd consequences.
（D） A line of reasoning is called into question on the grounds that it confuses cause and effect in a causal relation.
（E） An argument is analyzed by separating statements of fact from individual value judgments.
key： AEEAB AB