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高考英语书面表达技巧指南(二)

来源:英语阅读 编辑:英语学习 时间:2017-05-10
㈣解书面表达题必要的知识储备

  从知识储备的角度来说,我认为解书面表达题除了具备必要的词汇量、一定的语法知识和语言组织能力外,还要着重注意以下两点:

  ⒈掌握下面几种常用的英文文体的格式

  ⑴书信格式示例 :

                           25 Tianshui Road
                           Lanzhou, China
                           January 3rd, 2003

208 Hope Road
Sydney, Australia 

Dear Laura,

  How are you getting on now?__________________________________
____________________________________________________________ 


                               Yours,
                              Zhou Lan

  ⑵通知格式示例:

  ①书面通知格式示例

                   NOTICE

  In order to arouse the students’ interest in learning English, the Student Union has decided to set up an English Club with the help of the teachers of English.
  _____________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________ 


                            Student Union
                           November 9, 2004

  ②口头通知格式示例

Boys and girls,

  May I have your attention, please? I have an announcement to make.

  The Students’ Union is going to hold a party on Sunday evening, November 12th, to welcome our friends from the United States.
  _____________________________________________________________ 
_________________________________________________________________

  That’s all . Thank you!

  ⑶致词(speech)格式示例:

  ①欢迎词格式示例

Ladies and gentlemen/ Mr President/etc,

  Welcome to-------
  _____________________________________________________________

  That’s all. Thank you.

  ②欢送词格式示例

Dear friends,
  _____________________________________________________________

  good luck to -----/ goodbye, dear friends.

  ⒉了解下面一些可能在英语书面表达中使用到的重要句型

  1)以形式主语it引导的有关句型。

  (1)“It is / was+被强调的部分+that(who)+剩余的部分.”例如:
  ①It wasn’t until he came back that I went to bed.“直到他回来我才睡觉”(一定要注意被强调句型谓语动词否定的转移及形式)。
  ②It was because he was ill that he didn’t come to school today.“只因为他有病了今天没有来上学”(只能用because而不能用for, as 或since)
  ③It is I who am a student. “我确实是个学生”。

  (2)“It happened(chanced)that +clause. = sb. happened /chanced sth. =sb.did sth. by chance.” 例如:
  It happened that he was out when I got there.“当我到那儿时,碰巧他不在”=He happened to be out when I got there.= It chanced that he was out when I got there= He was out by chance when I got there.

  (3)“It seems that sb. do/ be doing/ have done/ had done= Sb. seems to do/ be doing/ have done/ had done”(还有动词appear可这样使用)例如:
  It seemed that he had been to Beijing before.“好像你以去过北京”=He seemed to have been Beijing before.

  (4)“It is high time (time/ about time) (that) 主语+should do / did+其它”(注意从句中的谓语动词用的是虚拟语气) 例如:
  It is high time that we should go / went home.我们该回家了。

  (5)“It is / was said ( reported…)+that+从句.” 例如:
It was said that he had read this novel.“据说他读过这篇小说”=He was said to have read this novel.

  (6)“It is impossible / necessary/ strange…that clause.”(从句中的谓语用should+do / should have done,其形式是虚拟语气) 例如:
  It is strange that he should have failed in this exam.真奇怪,他这次考试没有及格。

  (7)“It is + a pity/ a shame…that clause.” (注意从句中的谓语动词用should do或should have done的形式,但should可以省略) 例如:
  He didn’t come back until the film ended. It was a pity that he should have missed this film. “他直到电影结束才回来。他没有看到这部电影真可惜”

  (8)“It is suggested / ordered/ commanded /…that +clause.” (从句的谓语动词用should do, 但should可以省略) 例如:
  It is suggested that the meeting should be put off.“有人建议推迟会议”。

  (9)“It is/was+表示地点的名词+where+从句” (注意本句不是强调句型,而是以where引导的定语从句) 例如:
  It was this house where I was born.请比较:It was in this house that I was born.(后一句是强调句型。)

  (10)“It is / was +表示时间的名词+when+从句” (注意本句型也不是强调句型,而是以when引导的定语从句) 例如:
  It was 1999 when he came back from the United States. 请比较:It was in 1999 that he came back from the United States.

  (11)“It is well-known that+从句” 例如:
  It is well-known that she is a learned woman.“众所周知,她是个知识渊博的妇女”。

  (12)“It is +段时间+since+主语+did.” // “It was +段时间+since+主语+had done.” 例如:
  ①It is five years since he left here.“他已经离开这儿五年了”。
  ②It was five years since he left here.(同上) 

  (13)“It +谓语+段时间+before+主语+谓语”(before引导的是时间状语从句) 例如:
  ①It wasn’t long before the people in that country rose up.“没有多久那个国家的人民就起义了”
  ②It will be three hours before he comes back.“三个小时之后他才能回来”

  (14)“It is +形容词+for+ sb.+ to do.” 例如:
  It is impossible for me to finish this work before tomorrow.“我明天之前完成此工作是不可能的” 

  (15)“It is +(心理品质方面的)形容词+of + sb. +to do.”= “主语+ be +形容词+to do.”(常用的形容词有:kind, stupid; foolish, good, wise等) 例如:
  It is kind of you to help me.=You are kind to help me.“你真好给我提供了帮助”

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