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非限定动词特色的比较

来源:英语阅读 编辑:英语学习 时间:2017-06-13

  英语动词有限定(finite)和非限定(non-finite)两类。

  句子中的谓语动词(predicative verb)是限定的;限定动词受人称(person)和数目(number)的限制。此外,还有时态(tense )、语态(voice)和情态(mood)等。例如:
① good leaders serve the people whole-heartedly.
② Jason is giving a public lecture.
③ Who did it?
④ I would appreciate it if you could do me a favour.

  在句子中可以施展其他功能的动词是非限定动词;这些动词具有一般动词的许多特性,但没有“人称”和“数目”的限制。

  非限定动词分三种:不定式动词(the infinitive); 分词( the participle); 动名词(the gerund); 分词又分现在分词( the present participle)和过去分词(the past participle)。

  例如:
⑤ Tom found the prescribed text hard to read.
⑥ Helen has a smiling face.
⑦ Your written English is good.
⑧ Smoking is harmful to health.

  ⑤里的是不定式动词;⑥里的是现在分词;⑦里的是过去分词;
⑧里的是动名词。

  非限定动词及其短语,语法功能庞大,涉及下列五方面:

  ㈠ 当主语

  不定式动词和动名词都可当句子的主语,取代名词和代名词。例如:
⑨ To swim in a warm day is joyful.
⑩ Swimming makes us hale and hearty.

  ㈡ 当补足语

  可当主语的句子成分也可当补足语。例如:
● A good government"s desire is serving the people.
● What is difficult is to hoodwink the public indefinitely.

  同样的,现在分词与过去分词也可充当接系动词(the linking verb)的补足语。例如:
● The witness"s evidence is quite convincing.
● At long last, John was fully convinced.

  ㈢ 当宾语

  不定式动词和动名词都可充当及物动词的宾语。例如:
● The baby wanted to drink milk.
● Janet suddenly stopped talking.

   它们也可以成为介词的宾语,但除了“except, but, about, than”之外,介词的宾语多数是动名词。

  例如:
? I am tired of repeating the same point.
? Most of us desired nothing except to succeed.
? Betty did nothing useful but talk(不带”to”)。
? That weak old man is about to die.

  ㈣ 当名词修饰语
? Don"t disturb the sleeping dog.(现在分词)
? Can you remove the damaged machine?(过去分词)
? That is the only thing to do.(不定式动词)
? The sailors came in a fishing boat.(动名词)

  ㈤ 当动词修饰语
? Walking along the road, he came across a friend.(现在分词短语)
? Extremely frightened, the picnickers fled.(过去分词短语)
? The athlete stopped to take a rest?(不定式动词短语)
? Peter came running.(动名词)

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