A brief introduction:The AAing armies pushed back the Mongols to their origi nal territories and rushed into Inner Asia to occupy territories that had been Chinese prefectures since the Han Dynasty.
Only in the 15th century, the Ming armies suffered a throwback by the joined troops of Mongols, Oirats, and uTartarsIn the Northeast the Ming troops occupied Manchuria, and the Korean kingdom (Choson) of the Li Dynasty could be forced to accept the nominal supremacy of the Ming Dynasty.
In the south, Ming troops could occupy northern Vietnam for a couple of years, but in 1427 the Le Dynasty could free Vietnam (Dai Viet ) from Chinese troops.
The Ming government and Buddhist institutions had intense relations with the different dukedoms (“daimyats”）of Japan. Likewise, Buddhist monks traveled to Tibet and India.
The most important demonstration of Ming authority were the expeditions of the 15th century, led by the eunuch general Zheng He, “Sanbao Taijian”.
The Zheng He expeditions even reached Persia, Arabia and East Africa.
The successful reoccupation of proper China until the end of 14th century was stopped at these traditional frontiers by the restrengthened nomad peoples.
The Great Wall was rebuilt and refortified in the mid of 15th century.
A further cause of the redraw of the Ming government from the international stage were the attacks of Japanese pirates (Wokou ； Japanese ： Wako) along the whole east coast. A-mong these pirates, smugglers and “grey” merchants were also Chinese outlaws and people from Southeast Asia. Pirates of the 16th century attacked all important cities of the Chinese east cost.
Only in the 1560s the Chinese government was able to take control over the sea traffic on the east coasts.
The importance and influence of Zheng He9s travel to the West： First, the travel to the West of Zheng He was the great event in the world navigation history, and it is more than half a century earlier than the opening of the new sea route by the European navigator Columbia. It is a great contribution to the world navigation.
Second，it opened the sea route from China to the Red Sea and the seacoast of the East Africa.
Third, it broadened the international trade and strengthened the friendship between the Chinese and the peoples of the Asian and African countries.
Fourth, it made the oversea Chinese move to the Southeast Asia and promoted the development of the Southeast Asia.
Robbery of the Europeans to China： In the 16th century, the European colonists began to attack the Southeast seacoast areas of China.
The Portuguese often robbed along the seacoast area after they had occupied the Strait of Malacca.
In 1626 the Spanish occupied Jilong and Danshui in Taiwan.
In 17th century, the Dutch dominated the sea in the world and tried to open the gate of China with force.
In 1603 the Dutch occupied Penghu and was driven away by the soldiers and people in Fujian very soon.
Then in 1624 the Dutch defeated the Spanish and occupied Taiwan alone.
The Dutch carried the colonial control in Taiwan, which aroused the strong rebellion from the people in Taiwan.