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双语阅读之中国历史:明朝与周边的关系

来源:英语阅读 编辑:英语学习 时间:2018-12-06

A brief introduction:The AAing armies pushed back the Mongols to their origi nal territories and rushed into Inner Asia to occupy territories that had been Chinese prefectures since the Han Dynasty.

简述:明朝军队将蒙古人赶回到了他们原来的驻地,然后蜂拥至中亚地区并占领了自汉朝以来一直是中国的省府的地域。

双语阅读之中国历史:明朝与周边的关系

Only in the 15th century, the Ming armies suffered a throwback by the joined troops of Mongols, Oirats, and uTartarsIn the Northeast the Ming troops occupied Manchuria, and the Korean kingdom (Choson) of the Li Dynasty could be forced to accept the nominal supremacy of the Ming Dynasty.

仅在15世纪中期,明朝军队就遭遇到由蒙古人、瓦剌人和鞑靼人的联合军队的阻击。在中国东北地区,明朝军队占领了满族人的居住地和朝鲜王国,当时朝鲜被迫接受了明朝名义上的统治。

In the south, Ming troops could occupy northern Vietnam for a couple of years, but in 1427 the Le Dynasty could free Vietnam (Dai Viet ) from Chinese troops.

在南方,明朝军队占领越南北部达2年之久。1427年,黎朝从中国部队手里解放了越南(当时叫大越)。

The Ming government and Buddhist institutions had intense relations with the different dukedoms (“daimyats”)of Japan. Likewise, Buddhist monks traveled to Tibet and India.

当时,明政权以及佛院和日本的各公国之间关系紧张,同时,佛教僧侣西去西藏和印度。

The most important demonstration of Ming authority were the expeditions of the 15th century, led by the eunuch general Zheng He, “Sanbao Taijian”.

而对明朝在世界上的权威最具说明意义的,是15世纪由太监郑和(三宝太监)率队所进行的远航。

The Zheng He expeditions even reached Persia, Arabia and East Africa.

郑和的远航曾一度到达波斯、阿拉伯和非洲。

The successful reoccupation of proper China until the end of 14th century was stopped at these traditional frontiers by the restrengthened nomad peoples.

到了14世纪末期,强大的中国对周边成功的再占领止于重新强大了的游牧民族。

The Great Wall was rebuilt and refortified in the mid of 15th century.

15世纪中期,明朝对长城进行了重新维修和加固。

A further cause of the redraw of the Ming government from the international stage were the attacks of Japanese pirates (Wokou ; Japanese : Wako) along the whole east coast. A-mong these pirates, smugglers and “grey” merchants were also Chinese outlaws and people from Southeast Asia. Pirates of the 16th century attacked all important cities of the Chinese east cost.

但是明政府在世界舞台上的萎缩其更深原因是由于日本海盗在中国东南沿海的袭扰,这些日本海盗、走私者和“灰色”商人中夹杂由中国的犯人和南亚人,他们袭击中国东部海岸的所有重镇。

Only in the 1560s the Chinese government was able to take control over the sea traffic on the east coasts.

直到16世纪60年代,明朝政府才控制了东海岸的水上交通。

The importance and influence of Zheng He9s travel to the West: First, the travel to the West of Zheng He was the great event in the world navigation history, and it is more than half a century earlier than the opening of the new sea route by the European navigator Columbia. It is a great contribution to the world navigation.

郑和下西洋的意义和影响:一、郑和下西洋是世界航海史上的壮举,比欧洲航海家哥伦布开辟新航路早半个多世纪,这是我国人民对航海事业的伟大贡献。

Second,it opened the sea route from China to the Red Sea and the seacoast of the East Africa.

二、开辟了中国到达红海、东非沿岸的新航道。

Third, it broadened the international trade and strengthened the friendship between the Chinese and the peoples of the Asian and African countries.

三、扩大了国际贸易,增进了中国同亚 非国家人民的友谊。

Fourth, it made the oversea Chinese move to the Southeast Asia and promoted the development of the Southeast Asia.

四、进一步推动华侨移向南洋,从而促进了南洋的开发。

Robbery of the Europeans to China: In the 16th century, the European colonists began to attack the Southeast seacoast areas of China.

欧洲人对中国的掠夺:16世纪时,欧洲殖民者开始侵扰我国东南沿海地区。

The Portuguese often robbed along the seacoast area after they had occupied the Strait of Malacca.

葡萄牙人占领满剌加(马六甲)后,常到我国沿海劫惊。

In 1626 the Spanish occupied Jilong and Danshui in Taiwan.

1626年,西班牙殖民者侵占我国台湾的基隆和淡水。

In 17th century, the Dutch dominated the sea in the world and tried to open the gate of China with force.

17世纪荷兰称霸海上,企图用武力打开中国大门。

In 1603 the Dutch occupied Penghu and was driven away by the soldiers and people in Fujian very soon.

1603年,荷兰侵占彭湖,不久,被福建军民驱逐。

Then in 1624 the Dutch defeated the Spanish and occupied Taiwan alone.

1624年,荷兰人乘明朝防务松弛,侵占我国台湾南部。

The Dutch carried the colonial control in Taiwan, which aroused the strong rebellion from the people in Taiwan.

后来,荷兰人又打败西班牙人,独占台湾。荷兰在台湾实行殖民统治,引起台湾人民的强烈反抗。

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