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双语阅读之中国历史:明末农民起义

来源:英语阅读 编辑:英语学习 时间:2018-12-05

At the end of the Ming Dynasty, it was corrupt in politics.

明朝后期,政治腐朽。

双语阅读之中国历史:明末农民起义

The emperor often did not go to court and the government was in the control of the eunuchs. The eunuchs practiced graft and accepted bribes, sold and bought positions and scrambled for the rights and interests, which deepened the social crisis.

皇帝经常不上朝,国家大权由宦官掌握,他们贪污受贿,卖官鬻爵,争权夺利,加深了社会的危机。

In 1594, Langzhong of the Board of the Civil Office, Gu Xiancheng, was removed from his office and returned to his hometown, Wuxi. He taught together with Gao Panlong and Qian Yiben and so on in the Donglin Academy. They discussed the governmental administration, criticized the groups in office. They were supported by most of the scholar-officials and were called the Donglin Party.

1594年,吏部郎中顾宪成被革职还乡到了无锡,与髙攀龙、钱一本等在东林书院讲学,他们议论朝政,批评当权集团,得到部分士大夫的支持,被称为“东林党”。

The Donglin Party disapproved of Shenzong,s dethroning the oldest son to‘ be the successor with the substitute of the younger one, they were against the robbery of the mine supervisors and the tax supervisors. They advocated to open up for the criticisms and suggestions and to restore the governmental administration, so they were hated by the groups in office.

东林党反对神宗废长立幼,反对矿监、税监的掠夺,主张开放言路,改革朝政,遭到当权派的嫉恨。

In 1601, the tax supervisor Sun Long came to Suzhou. He set up barriers, extorted the merchants and decided to levy three qian silver for every loom and three fen silver for every bolt of silk.

1601年,税监孙隆来到苏州,设置关卡,勒索客商,还理定每台织机征银三钱,每匹绸缎征银三分。

The weaving households stopped weaving to show their protest.

当时机户一致停业,以示反抗。

The unemployed weavers went to the street on strike under the leadership of Ge Xian. They enclosed the Tax Department and killed the tax official ,and Sun Long was frightened to escape at night.

失业的机工,在葛贤领导下,走上街头,包围税署,打死税吏,孙隆吓得连夜逃跑。

The fight against the tax and mine supervisors broke out as well in other more than 10 cities.

其他十几个城市,也都爆发了城市人民的反税监、矿监的斗争。

The fights are the reflection of the seeds of the capitalism in politics at the end of the Ming Dynasty.

这些斗争是明朝后期资本主义萌芽在政治上的反映。

The annexation of land came to the surprising extent at the end of the Ming Dynasty.

明朝后期,土地兼并达到惊人的地步。

The emperor awarded a great amount of land to his gentry, ministers, and the eunuchs.

皇帝常把大量土地赐给贵族、大臣和宦官作为庄田。

Ming Shenzong once (warded his son the land of two million mu .

神宗一次就赐给他的儿子福王,田地200万亩。

The landlords and bureaucrats annexed land greatly.

地主、官僚也大量兼并土地。

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